Foot Pronation

Insoles for Overpronation and Underpronation

Think of your feet as super shock absorbers when you walk or run. Pronation, or the natural inward rolling of your foot, allows for landing, propulsion, and shock absorption when you move. The problem is how that impact gets distributed across your feet. As a result of the arch of your foot and your “gait”, your foot may roll too much or too little, requiring various types of support and stability.

Normal Pronation

If you have normal pronation, the outside of your heel will make initial contact with the ground when you start to walk or run. As you progress forward, your foot rolls about 15 percent inward, meets the ground completely, then pushes off with even distribution across the forefoot. With normal pronation, all that pounding and impact from moving so much gets evenly distributed across your feet and legs.


Like normal pronation, movement will begin with the outside of your heel touching the ground first. From there though, your foot will roll beyond the ideal 15 percent, resulting in too little foot and ankle stabilization. You’ll push off your toes instead of your forefoot, putting too much pressure and stress on the front of your foot.


Underpronation (supination) is the opposite of overpronation, where there is little to no rolling of the foot at all. The outside of your heel still kicks off the initial movement, but too little movement afterwards means the outside edge of your foot takes the majority of the impact.


Effects of Overpronation and Underpronation

Runners and those who are on their feet a lot throughout the day feel the effects of overpronation and underpronation the most. In fact, these conditions can lead to aches, pains, and injuries that can keep you off your feet. Whether you’re dealing with overpronation or underpronation, both conditions put more pressure on specific areas of your foot rather than evenly distributing the impact. This leads to stress fractures, shin splints, and other conditions like Plantar Fasciitis, Metatarsalgia and Achilles tendonitis.


Solutions for Overpronation and Underpronation

To provide the right amount of support for your feet, you first need to determine if your feet are overpronated or underpronated. Start by looking at your own feet:

  • If you have a flat arch and you tend to put most of your weight on the inside of your foot when you land on it, your feet are overpronated.
  • If you seem to have a high arch and you land on the outside of your foot with your ankle pointing inward, your feet are underpronated.

If you’re not sure on your feet’s pronation, your local running store can do a gait analysis to tell you if you’re overpronated or underpronated.


Orthotics for Overpronation

The following orthotic insoles can help relieve pain and discomfort caused by overpronation:

  • Pinnacle MAXX: The Pinnacle MAXX orthotic insoles are designed with a firmer shell and angled heel platform to give you greater control and arch support. They can be worn in casual, athletic and work shoes to help manage overpronation.
  • Journey Hiker: These orthotic insoles are specifically for hiking on rough terrain, built with a firmer arch support and heel cradle for increased stability. The shock-absorbing foam in these insoles reduces the impact of each step on your feet, ankles, and joints.
  • Wide Fit: These wide orthotic insoles are made with a firmer arch support and heel cup for maximum support to help manage overpronation and stabilize your feet and ankles.


Orthotics for Underpronation

The following orthotic insoles can help relieve pain and discomfort caused by underpronation:

  • ArchLite: These full-length insoles are designed with dual-layered cushioning from heel to toe to provide maximum comfort. The VCT® Variable Cushioning Technology offers targeted and controlled cushioning to manage underpronation.
  • Endurance: These insoles have a slim, low-profile design with targeted Poron® cushioning at the heel and ball of foot for protection and comfort at high-impact areas. These insoles are built with a flexible arch support shell that provides lighter arch support.


Explore Powerstep’s full line of orthotic insoles that can relieve and prevent discomfort from overpronation and underpronation.